Biodegradation of Pesticides

Biodegradation of Pesticides PDF Author: Fumio Matsumura
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468440888
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 316

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Book Description
When first developed, chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, and mirex were received with open arms, quickly becoming popular as effective, economic agents against pests. But evidence began to mount that residues of these chemicals remained in the environment, not breaking down, often appearing in plants and animals. By the late seventies many pesticides had achieved a terrible notoriety and were subsequently banned in a number of countries. Of tremendous concern, then, is the persistence of pesticides in the environment. The major thrust of research and development in the area of pesticides has properly been the creation of substances that are both effective and degradable. Yet in order to successfully promote the use of biodegradable pesticides, one must fully understand the mechanism of degradation, and it is to this vital subject that we address ourselves in the present volume. According to the Biodegradation Task Force, Safety of Chemicals Com mittee, Brussels (1978), biodegradation may be defined as the molecular degradation of an organic substance resulting from the complex action of living organisms. A substance is said to be biodegraded to an environmentally acceptable extent when environmentally undesirable properties are lost. Loss of some characteristic function or property of substance by biodegradation may be referred to as biological transformation.

Biodegradation of Pesticides

Biodegradation of Pesticides PDF Author: Fumio Matsumura
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468440888
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 316

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Book Description
When first developed, chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, dieldrin, and mirex were received with open arms, quickly becoming popular as effective, economic agents against pests. But evidence began to mount that residues of these chemicals remained in the environment, not breaking down, often appearing in plants and animals. By the late seventies many pesticides had achieved a terrible notoriety and were subsequently banned in a number of countries. Of tremendous concern, then, is the persistence of pesticides in the environment. The major thrust of research and development in the area of pesticides has properly been the creation of substances that are both effective and degradable. Yet in order to successfully promote the use of biodegradable pesticides, one must fully understand the mechanism of degradation, and it is to this vital subject that we address ourselves in the present volume. According to the Biodegradation Task Force, Safety of Chemicals Com mittee, Brussels (1978), biodegradation may be defined as the molecular degradation of an organic substance resulting from the complex action of living organisms. A substance is said to be biodegraded to an environmentally acceptable extent when environmentally undesirable properties are lost. Loss of some characteristic function or property of substance by biodegradation may be referred to as biological transformation.

Bioremediation of Agricultural Soils

Bioremediation of Agricultural Soils PDF Author: Juan C. Sanchez-Hernandez
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351793101
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 247

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Book Description
The quality of agricultural soils are always under threat from chemical contaminants, which ultimately affect the productivity and safety of crops. Besides agrochemicals, a new generation of substances invades the soil through irrigation with reclaimed wastewater and pollutants of organic origin such as sewage sludge or cattle manure. Emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, nanomaterials and microplastics are now present in agricultural soils, but the understanding of their impact on soil quality is still limited. With focus on in situ bioremediation, this book provides an exhaustive analysis of the current biological methodologies for recovering polluted agricultural soils as well as monitoring the effectiveness of bioremediation.

Biodegradation

Biodegradation PDF Author: Rolando Chamy
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 953511154X
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 382

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Book Description
This book contains a collection of different biodegradation research activities where biological processes take place. The book has two main sections: A) Polymers and Surfactants Biodegradation and B) Biodegradation: Microbial Behaviour.

Microbe-Induced Degradation of Pesticides

Microbe-Induced Degradation of Pesticides PDF Author: Shree Nath Singh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319451561
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 233

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Book Description
This book focuses on the microbial degradation of endosulfan, lindane, chlorophenols, organochlorine, aldrin, dieldrin, isoproturon and atrazine, etc. which are commonly used in crop fields to kill the pests. Further, it illustrates the role of degradative enzymes, metabolic pathways of degradation, toxicity of metabolites, and the factors regulating the pesticide degradation. In view of persistence of synthetic pesticides, scientists have discovered suitable microbes, such as bacteria, fungi and algae (naturally occurring or genetically engineered) over the years. After successful trials under laboratory and field conditions, these microbes are being used to degrade chemical pesticides in agriculture. As of now 2.56 billion kg of chemical pesticides is used every year to protect agricultural fields against pest attack. These technologies have been found to be highly effective, eco-friendly and cost-effective without disturbing the agro-ecosystems. As this book contains review articles contributed by various researchers from different countries whose work demonstrates recent advances in microbial degradation of pesticides, it will serve as a ready reckoner and also a valuable quick reference guide for scientists, academicians, cultivators and industrialists alike.

Application of Microbes in Environmental and Microbial Biotechnology

Application of Microbes in Environmental and Microbial Biotechnology PDF Author: Inamuddin
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811622256
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 734

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Book Description
This comprehensive edited book on microbial prospective discusses the innovative approaches and investigation strategies, as well as provides a broad spectrum of the cutting-edge research on the processing, properties and technological developments of microbial products and their applications. Microbes finds very important applications in our lives including industries and food processing. They are widely used in the fermentation of beverages, processing of dairy products, production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, enzymes, proteins and biomaterials; conversion of biomass into fuel, fuel cell technology, health and environmental sectors. Some of these products are produced commercially, while others are potentially valuable in biotechnology. Microorganisms are considered invaluable in research as model organisms. This is a useful compilation for students and researchers in microbiology, biotechnology and chemical industries.

Pesticides in the Soil Environment

Pesticides in the Soil Environment PDF Author: Hwei-Hsien Cheng
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780891187912
Category : Pesticides
Languages : en
Pages : 0

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Book Description
Pesticides in the soil environment - an overview. Pesticide sources to the soil and principles of spray physics. The retention processes: mechanisms. Sorption estimates for modeling. Abiotic transformations in water, sediments, and soil. Biological transformation processes of pesticides. Volatilization and vapor transport processes. Organic chemical transport to Groundwater. Movement of pesticides into surface waters. Modeling pesticide fate in soils. Efficacy of soil-applied pesticides. Impact of pesticides on the environment. Risk/benefit and regulations. Chemical index.

Biochemistry of microbial degradation

Biochemistry of microbial degradation PDF Author: Colin Ratledge
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789401047388
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 590

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Book Description
Life on the planet depends on microbial activity. The recycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen, phosphate and all the other elements that constitute living matter are continuously in flux: microorganisms participate in key steps in these processes and without them life would cease within a few short years. The comparatively recent advent of man-made chemicals has now challenged the environment: where degradation does not occur, accumulation must perforce take place. Surprisingly though, even the most recalcitrant of molecules are gradually broken down and very few materials are truly impervious to microbial attack. Microorganisms, by their rapid growth rates, have the most rapid turn-over of their DNA of all living cells. Consequently they can evolve altered genes and therefore produce novel enzymes for handling "foreign" compounds - the xenobiotics - in a manner not seen with such effect in other organisms. Evolution, with the production of micro-organisms able to degrade molecules hitherto intractable to breakdown, is therefore a continuing event. Now, through the agency of genetic manipulation, it is possible to accelerate this process of natural evolution in a very directed manner. The time-scale before a new microorganism emerges that can utilize a recalcitrant molecule has now been considerably shortened by the application of well-understood genetic principles into microbiology. However, before these principles can be successfully used, it is essential that we understand the mechanism by which molecules are degraded, otherwise we shall not know where best to direct these efforts.

Microbial Interventions in Agriculture and Environment

Microbial Interventions in Agriculture and Environment PDF Author: Dhananjaya Pratap Singh
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 981138391X
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 608

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Book Description
Microbial communities and their functions play a crucial role in the management of ecological, environmental and agricultural health on the Earth. Microorganisms are the key identified players for plant growth promotion, plant immunization, disease suppression, induced resistance and tolerance against stresses as the indicative parameters of improved crop productivity and sustainable soil health. Beneficial belowground microbial interactions with the rhizosphere help plants mitigate drought and salinity stresses and alleviate water stresses under the unfavorable environmental conditions in the native soils. Microorganisms that are inhabitants of such environmental conditions have potential solutions for them. There are potential microbial communities that can degrade xenobiotic compounds, pesticides and toxic industrial chemicals and help remediate even heavy metals, and thus they find enormous applications in environmental remediation. Microbes have developed intrinsic metabolic capabilities with specific metabolic networks while inhabiting under specific conditions for many generations and, so play a crucial role. The book Microbial Interventions in Agriculture and Environment is an effort to compile and present a great volume of authentic, high-quality, socially-viable, practical and implementable research and technological work on microbial implications. The whole content of the volume covers protocols, methodologies, applications, interactions, role and impact of research and development aspects on microbial interventions and technological outcomes in prospects of agricultural and environmental domain including crop production, plan-soil health management, food & nutrition, nutrient recycling, land reclamation, clean water systems and agro-waste management, biodegradation & bioremediation, biomass to bioenergy, sanitation and rural livelihood security. The covered topics and sub-topics of the microbial domain have high implications for the targeted and wide readership of researchers, students, faculty and scientists working on these areas along with the agri-activists, policymakers, environmentalists, advisors etc. in the Government, industries and non-government level for reference and knowledge generation.

Microbial Technology for Sustainable Environment

Microbial Technology for Sustainable Environment PDF Author: Pankaj Bhatt
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811638403
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 566

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Book Description
Microorganisms are ubiquitous on earth. These microorganisms are able to perform various functions in the environment. Microbial applications are used as biofertilizers, bioremediation, biofortification and other sustainable approaches of environmental development. Indigenous microbial cultures have the potential to perform various functions that are beneficial to achieve the sustainable goals. To date, different strains have been commercialized for the industrial and common applications for the sustainable environment. This book will cover different aspects of microbial technology for sustainable development.

Microbial Degradation of Pesticides

Microbial Degradation of Pesticides PDF Author: Shaohua Chen
Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. USA
ISBN: 1649972210
Category : Antiques & Collectibles
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
The extensive use of pesticides, their disposal and consequent presence in various environments are of great concern regarding their ecotoxicological effect on the organisms of different trophic levels. Such widespread use results in an increased concentration of these compounds in water, sediments and soils. Chemical pesticides undergo many different pathways once they enter the environment, including transformation/degradation, sorption-desorption, volatilization, uptake by plants, runoff into surface waters and transport into groundwater. Transformation or degradation is one of the key processes that governs the environmental fate and transport of chemical pesticides, which also comprises different processes including abiotic degradation and biodegradation. During these processes, chemical pesticides are transformed into the degradation products or are completely mineralized to a carbon field. Although abiotic degradation plays a role in many cases, the biodegradation of chemical pesticides by microorganisms is usually the most important and dominant process.